Online gaming and adolescents: psychometric ratings of a scale


A recent study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the MOGS , the scale that measures the assessment of metacognitive beliefs related to online gaming . Video game addiction is characterized by excessive and persistent use of the internet or playing online/offline games. Diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder have referenced Pathological Gambling, Substance Use Disorder. Finally, also the Impulse Control Disorder.


There must be diagnostic criteria present for a 12-month period. Among adolescents, online gaming is 4%. Internet gaming disorder in adolescents is related to negative psychopathological outcomes and behavioral difficulties (depression and anxiety, impulse control problems). Among the reasons for the pathology there is the need for social connection , the desire to escape from reality, distraction, relaxation. In relation to the phenomenon of excessive online gaming there may be metacognitive beliefs. This term refers to the knowledge of our cognitive system. This is subjective information about one’s own cognitive functioning and generally used coping strategies.

Here a self-report tool has been developed for the assessment of meta-beliefs related to online gaming. It is the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale (MOGS). Statistics have identified a three-factor pattern. The first factor concerns the benefits of using online gaming: playing makes worries more manageable. The second factor, on the other hand, is related to not being able to stop playing, even if it would be better to do so. The third factor concerns metacognitive beliefs about the dangers of online gaming. There is also dysfunctional and maladaptive online gaming. 

The MOGS scale has recently been considered. This evaluates psychometric characteristics, factor structure, and predictive validity in a sample of Iranian adolescents. 769 Iranian adolescents were examined (577 males with an average age of 16 years) in an age range between 15 and 19 years. A three-factor scheme emerged from the results 

  • “Negative metacognitions concerning the uncontrollability of online gaming” (N-MOGU)
  • “Negative metacognitions regarding the dangers of online gaming” (N-MOGD) 
  • “Positive metacognitions on online gaming” (P-MOG)

The results demonstrated that metacognitive beliefs are able to predict dysfunctional modes of online gaming. A prediction independent of the motivations that lead the individual to play. The study demonstrated that the N-MOGU factor plays a greater role than the other variables in predicting scores on the scale. The latter evaluates the problematic and dysfunctional online game modes.

  • Metacognitive beliefs and online gaming in adolescents: psychometric evaluations of a rating scale on a sample of Iranian adolescents (


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